This report specifically examines legal remedies for online attacks against journalists. It looks at three case studies, in Finland, France and Ireland, of female journalists who were viciously attacked online for their work and the ensuing attempts to hold the perpetrators accountable. From an analysis of the case studies, it offers best practices and recommendations for OSCE participating States in implementing and interpreting laws so as to effectively respond to the diverse and growing forms of online harassment and protect the rights of journalists to do their work safely online without compromising freedom of expression as guaranteed by international human rights law.

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